The Andes Mountains in South America are the long continental mountains on our planet which are about 7,000 km long and 200 to 700 km wide, depending on the place. The Andes is undoubtedly the longest mountain range on the Earth.
The average height of the Andes mountain is about 4,000 meters. There is much debate about the origin of the name Andes, and according to most, it comes from the Quechua word Anti, which means East.
This great continental mountain range extends to seven countries in South America. The countries are Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.
Andijei is home to Lake Titicaca, the highest lake in the world, located on the border of Peru and Bolivia, its water is clear, and there are some human settlements.
Some of the major cities located on these plateaus are Bogota, Quito, Cali, Arequipa, Medellin, Bucaramanga, Sucre, Merida, La Paz. The location of the Cotopaxi, the highest active volcano in the world, is in the the longest mountain range on the Earth.
Experts consider this mountain the driest place in the world, and it has an average temperature of 16 degrees Celsius and an average annual rainfall of only 15 millimeters.
Outside of Asia, the Andes is the highest mountain on the planet, and It has a mountain named Aconcagua, the highest mountain outside Asia. This mountain has an elevation of about 6,961 meters above sea level.
The mountain’s peak location is near the city of Mendoza, Argentina, and it is also the world’s highest volcano. The world’s highest volcano, Ojos del Salado, is on the Argentina-Chile border, a height of 6,893 meters.
There are also some high plateaus, and the Altiplano Plateau in the the longest mountain range on the Earth is the second-highest plateau after the Pamir Plateau in Tibet.
There are also many active volcanoes. The Atacama Desert on the west of the longest mountain range on the Earth is exceedingly dry, rainless, and cool: it is located north of Chile and stretches to Peru’s southern border.
The great Amazon is the largest and second-longest river in the world, and it originated from the Nevada Mismi peak in the longest mountain range on the Earth of Peru.
Another major river in South America is the Orinako, which originates from the Andes, the longest mountain range on the Earth.
As it spreads over South America, different climates are visible in various parts and remain divided into three parts based on the continental climate.
These three parts of the climate are Tropical Andes, dry Andes, and humid Andes. Due to the biodiversity, there is a combination of different animals and plants. About two-thirds of the nearly 1,000 species of amphibians are now endemic.
The Andes is a significant region for amphibians on Earth which have about 600 species of mammals, 13 percent of which are endemic; more than 1700 species of birds, about 33 percent of which are endemic.
There are also more than 600 species of reptiles, 33 percent of which are endemic, and about 400 species of fish, of which 33 percent are endemic.
Animals of the camel family are also available in the longest mountain range on the Earth, such as Vicuna and Guanaco, which are available on the Altiplano Plateau.
On the other hand, the people keep llamas and alpacas for meat and wool. Many roads built by the Incas are still visible in the Middle Andes, and some of the oldest civilizations in the world developed in the Andes.
Inca civilization is the most notable among these developed in the Cusco region south of the Andes. The astonishing Machu Picchu Pyramid, built by the Incas, still stands on a peak in the Andes northwest of the city of Cusco.
All the diverse cultures have developed north to south of the Andes Mountains. From the Inca civilization to the present various cultures have flourished in this mountain area.